By creating “human-centered social systems” in the historical process; Humans established a relationship of exploitation and domination over nature and beings. With the emergence of classes, people deepened this relationship by establishing a relationship of exploitation and domination on people other than themselves. Capitalist / imperialist system is the manifestation of the deepest dimension of the relationship of exploitation and domination that humans establishes on nature and beings.
People’s relationship with objects takes place in the form of perception, orientation and ownership of the object. Orientation, perception, and ownership often occur simultaneously. Yet their functions are different. As this is the case, it becomes necessary to maintain the distinction between them. Orientation determines which objects a person will try to see and which ones to choose. In this respect, orientation comes before perception. Perception is the direct-subjective relationship that a person acquires through their senses and establishes with nature. Appropriation is the interaction between human senses, nature and beings. It is about how we perceive and make sense of things. The framework of our attitude towards life outside us is determined by the patterns and values created by our orientation. In this context, as people tend to and perceive nature, they embrace it. Orientation, perception and ownership of nature and beings other than itself is shaped through natural human activity, generic capacity and senses. People’s orientation, perception and demand for ownership vary in historical processes. In each social formation, the generic activity of man changes. In the capitalist formation where the private property phenomenon is extremely strong; It takes place in the form of humans owning nature, beings, people other than themselves and making them possessive by appropriating them to themselves. This situation; shows that people learn to own property from the relationship they establish with nature and objects.
Enlightenment philosophy on which the capitalist system rises; Preached that human beings would achieve absolute victory by subjugating nature and living things, that they would benefit from the “blessings” of nature at the highest level, and that they would live in prosperity and happiness in this direction. The positivist relationship established by the Enlightenment philosophy with science and the logic of progress caused the capitalist system to progress unrestrained, as well as leaving huge ruins behind it. The world wars of the twentieth century, the use of atomic bombs, the wreckage created by nuclear disasters pushed the ideologues of the Enlightenment philosophy into deep suspicion and pessimism. In the capitalist system, it was inevitable that knowledge, science and technology, the unlimited profit motive, the logic of unceasing progress created the relationship between power and potency. It is clear that science has transformed into power and potency in capitalist society, and this logic of operation cannot be liberating without changing it. The religious worldview and the point of view of the heavenly religions are parallel to the anthropocentric point of view of class systems. They rationalize the relations of exploitation and domination by claiming that God created all beings as a “blessing” for human beings and that people have the right to dispose of things as they wish. Humans detachment from nature has created psychological damage on both animals and humans. People enter the living spaces of animals by establishing airports and high-speed train networks, using violence, consuming, and putting them in cages. This situation causes severe stress in animals.In another aspect, people establishing relationships of exploitation and domination on other people, using violence against each other, imprisoning themselves by forming prisons, the way the city and industry and social life are designed, developments in the field of informatics, the exploitation and domination relations that are revealed in communication / media and information networks are in fact, is the result of the human beings who is the perpetrator and the victim objectifying this tragic situation against their own creation.
Today, people can fulfill their nutritional needs through agricultural and industrial production without the need for meat consumption. Nevertheless, the greenhouse gas emitted from farms created for livestock breeding and cutting down forests at the expense of producing animal feed to meet the needs of the meat consumption industry is one of the most important factors of the climate crisis. Likewise, the relationship of exploitation and domination established on animals manifested itself in all areas of life. For example; Sports (bullfights, etc.), clothing (animal skins, leather, etc.), cosmetics (products made with animal oils and products), hunting, circus, and zoos. These examples show us that the suffering of animals is realized for the sake of capital’s unlimited profit motive.
Human nature is not steady or unchangeable. This paradoxical perspective on human nature cannot understand that human nature is historical and changes in social systems and stages. This point of view, which fixes the human nature to the relationship of nutrition, housing and reproduction, in fact legitimizes the relationships of exploitation and domination by making sense of competition, ambition, selfishness, exploitation and domination in accordance with human nature. Capitalist appropriation has become, in Marx’s words, “a direct, one-sided satisfaction in the sense of merely holding, acquiring property.” This quality of capitalist appropriation does not mean that appropriation has lost its creative character or that it is an illusion. The desire to possess is, in this respect, not a feature of human nature, but a historically conditioned feature. The desire of the individual to have everything they relate to is characteristic of capitalism.
The revelation of the division of labor and its continuous development from the historical process to the present made it difficult for people to grasp things holistically. Accordingly, it imprisoned humans to a one-sided point of view. If we take into account that this process is getting deeper in the capitalist system, we can understand how problematic it is for people to own objects other than themselves, that is, appropriating them. How does one perceive, orient and own a tree, fish or ore? If a person sees wood when they look at a tree, when they look at a fish, they find meaning as meat in their imagination, if they see the monetary value of a stone in a mine; this perception, orientation and ownership is an indicator of the relationship with the desire to own or to own property. This is the ownership order of class societies.
Conceptions with this point of view ignore that human beings are natural beings, but at the same time the nature of humans as a product of the historical process and as a species being is a constant occurrence. Understanding that human nature is historical at the point of social relations and systems is like the key to the hope that a communal life and another form of existence is possible. Human’s orientation, perception and appropriation style are determined by social conditions. Our orientation and perception can differentiate the way we own with another social existence. There are many possibilities of realization of the essential powers of humans. There are potential forms that these powers will take in the historical stage. The essential powers of humans work together because they are interconnected in life. Human beings are connected to each of the beings with which they are related by numerous bonds.The moment of sunset, when the sun sets, which is associated with the individual’s power of vision, may also be connected to the individual as the powers of thinking, feeling and love. The sunset can affect all of these forces. Marx said, “The formation of the five senses is the work of all world history from the beginning to the present.” That’s what he was trying to explain when he said. This is the appropriation order of the communal society.
Marx defines communism in his 1844 Manuscripts as follows: “… Communism; It is the positive transcendence of private property as the alienation of human from themselves and therefore the real appropriation of the human essence by and for humans. Communism is, therefore, the complete return of humans to themselves as a social (humanly) being. (…) This communism is the genuine solution of the conflict between humans and nature and human and human. It is the real solution to the conflict between being and essence, objectivation and self-realization, freedom and necessity, between the individual and the human species. Communism is the solution to the problem that history has put before us, and it knows that it is the solution.”
If appropriation in capitalist society is a “low point”, from the point of view of scientific socialism it is a “high point” in a communal life. Communal life, as the realization of the power of human activity is like the gigantic accumulation of human potential being released into life. The richness of man’s subjective sensitivity, that is, the senses capable of human fulfillment, are recreated by a new existence. In this sense, a communal life is the time of personal appropriation. The domination and exploitation relationship established by the capitalist system on nature and assets can only be overcome by a communal life. The surplus-value exploitation of the capitalist system can only be overcome by a communal struggle for survival that has been carried out from now on.
A different life and existence is possible!
REVOLT againts capitalism, patriarchy, heterosexism, colonialism, the domination of humans over all living things and nature!
REVOLT for a communal life!
REVOLT against anthropocentrism!